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Independent Research Papers


The Dolphin WaterCare System has been extensively researched by several third party organizations. For your information, we have provided links to the studies below:

Alcoa Report Chemical vs. Non-Chemical Evaluation

In this study conducted by Alcoa personnel and independent consultants, two non-chemical cooling water treatment technologies, a pulsed power system provided by Dolphin WaterCare and a hydrodynamic cavitation device, were evaluated against conventional chemical treatment in a detailed six-month study. The comparison was conducted at Alcoa's Mt. Holly Works in Goose Creek, South Carolina. Three identical, non-contact, evaporative coolers used to cool air compressor systems were used as the test sites. Water quality parameters, corrosion, scaling indices, microbiological (aerobic and anaerobic planktonic and sessile, Legionella), and aquatic toxicity data/results are presented for the different operating conditions. It is important to note that conditions were changed over time so that each technology was tested "under stress" to determine and quantify operational limitations and failure points. Operating cost comparisons are also shared. Major results of the evaluation are: (1) The sidewall scale in the non-chemical towers had a sparkling, crystalline appearance in comparison to the dull white scale of the chemically treated tower. (2) Both of the non-chemical towers delivered better and more consistent microbiological control for both aerobic and anaerobic planktonic organisms compared to the chemically treated tower. (3) Microbiological control for slime forming, sessile organisms was better and more consistent for the non-chemical systems. (4) The results showed a clear cost savings advantages for the pulsed-power systems against the other two technologies across all system sizes. The full, detailed report is available in the following pdf file.

CTI Paper: Dolphin 'Pulsed Power' Cooling Water Treatment

Abstract: "A sequential study was conducted comparing water treatment performance of traditional chemical water treatment and Dolphin "pulsed power" water treatment. The independent study was conducted on the cooling tower for the University of Colorado (Boulder) ice rink. Makeup for the tower was Boulder city water. Parameters evaluated were scaling, total bacteria, and corrosion. Dolphin "pulsed power" water treatment was found to perform as well or better than chemical treatment when judged by the condition of the chiller and tower fill, total bacteria counts, corrosion coupons and cycles of concentration. Water, energy, manpower and safety issues are presented." Click to see full pdf version.

NACE International: Pulsed-Power Water Treatment as Green Scale Inhibitor for HVAC and Once-Through Industrial Systems

Abstract: "The paper describes the use of non-chemical (chemical-free) water treatment method, pulsed-power, to control scale formation under a variety of conditions..." Click to see full abstract and pdf version.

CTI Paper: Field Evaluation and Verification of Biological Control in Operating Cooling Tower Water Systems Utilizing Non-Chemical Pulse Electric Field Devices

Abstract: "Pulsed Electric Field Devices (PEFDs) have been used as the sole source of water treatment in evaporative cooling water systems for over 10 years with good results. Several field evaluations will be presented that provide detailed data on microbiological control entirely by the PEFDs. This paper will present both field and laboratory test data independently obtained from operating cooling tower water systems which rely solely on PEFDs for microbiological control. This data shows that adequate and acceptable control of planktonic (bulk water) microbial populations in numerous full-sized cooling tower systems is being obtained..." Click to see full abstract and pdf version.

Case Study on Playtex and Dolphin WaterCare

This case study was published in Facilities Engineering Journal, which is sponsored by the Association for Facilities Engineering. The retrofit installation of a Dolphin WaterCare chemical-free water treatment system at the Playtex Products manufacturing plant in Dover, Delaware, proved to be a resounding success in lowering operational costs while helping to protect human health and the environment in significant ways. For example, on one cooling tower at the plant, the re-circulating water was crystal clear, the system was operating at higher cycles of concentration (COCs) than under chemical treatment, and total bacteria counts (TBC) were in the hundreds, far better than what is typically determined as "excellent water treatment" by the Cooling Technology Institute. Efficient heat transfer, as indicated by the approach temperature, was being maintained. Under chemical treatment, the total water use was estimated at 16,200 million gallons per year (mgpy), while under the Dolphin System treatment the total water use is 11,340 mgpy, resulting in a 30 percent reduction in total water use. This reduction is a direct result of increased COCs, resulting in less blowdown or discharge water. Under chemical treatment, water discharge was calculated as 8,100 mpgy; the water discharge is 3,240 mgpy under the Dolphin System control, resulting in a 60 percent water discharge reduction. Click to see full pdf version.

IWC: A Field Evaluation of Chemical and Pulsed Power Water Treatment

A study was conducted comparing water treatment performance of traditional chemical water treatment, chemical water treatment with high efficiency filtration, and a pulsed power non-chemical water treatment device. The independent study was conducted using three essentially identical cooling systems located on a research building at a major university in the Southeastern United States. "City water" was used as makeup for the towers. Parameters evaluated were scaling, total bacteria, and corrosion. The pulsed power water treatment device was found to perform as well or better than chemical treatment when judged by the condition of the chiller and tower fill, total bacteria counts, corrosion coupons and cycles of concentration. Water usage, as measured by cycles of concentration was significantly lower for the pulsed power system than the other two systems. Click to see full pdf version.

ASHRAE Green Tip #14: Pulse-Powered Chemical-Free Water Treatment

This ASRAE-produced paper outlines how the pulse powered system operates, the benefits of the technology, how it supports the objectives of green buildings and that it has earned LEED points for many (over 350) projects. Click to see full pdf version.